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The Science

 

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Hydrogen inhalation and recovery

Impact of hydrogen-rich gas mixture inhalation through nasal cannula during post-exercise recovery period on subsequent oxidative stress, muscle damage, and exercise performances in men

Molecular hydrogen has been suggested to have a cytoprotective effect on the whole body and to enhance exercise performances. We examined the impact of acute HG inhalation on subsequent oxidative stress, muscle damage, and exercise performances during the recovery period after a strenuous exercise. This is a two-trial, double-blind, crossover, repeated measures study. Eight physically active male volunteers inhaled HG (estimated fraction of inspired oxygen and hydrogen were 21.57 and 4.08% at most, respectively) or normal gas (placebo, ambient air 400 m above sea level) during a 60-minute recovery phase after oxidative stress-inducing exercise) completion comprising 30-minute treadmill running at an intensity corresponding to 75% of maximal oxygen uptake and squat jumps (5 sets × 10 repetitions). Before oxidative stress-inducing exercise and 10 minutes after the post-exercise gas inhalation, blood and urine samples were obtained and exercise performances (jumping ability; pedaling power output; muscle strength) were evaluated. Post-exercise HG inhalation attenuated the increase in urinary 8-hydroxydeoxyguanosine excretion rate (P < 0.05), a DNA oxidation marker, and the reduction in the counter-movement jump height (P < 0.05), compared with Placebo inhalation. Other exercise performances and blood oxidative stress and muscle damage markers did not differ between HG and Placebo inhalation. Moreover, the increase in urinary 8-hydroxydeoxyguanosine excretion rate was significantly associated with counter-movement jump performance reduction (r = –0.78, P < 0.01). These findings suggested that HG inhalation during post-exercise recovery period might improve exercise performance via reducing systemic oxidative damage.

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https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8092152/

 

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Hydrogen inhalation improves running

Short-term H2 inhalation improves running performance and torso strength in healthy adults

In this randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled, crossover pilot trial, we evaluated the effects of 7-day H2 inhalation on exercise performance outcomes and serum hormonal and inflammation profiles in a cohort of young men and women. All participants (age 22.9 ± 1.5 years; body mass index 23.4 ± 2.5 kg m-2; 10 women and 10 men) were allocated to receive either gaseous hydrogen (4%) or placebo (room air) by 20-min once-per-day inhalation for 7 days, with a wash-out period of 7 days to prevent the residual effects of interventions across study periods. The primary treatment outcome was the change in running time-to-exhaustion in the incremental maximal test from baseline to day 7. Additionally, assessment of other exercise performance endpoints and clinical chemistry biomarkers was performed at baseline and at 7 days after each intervention. The trial was registered at ClinicalTrials.gov (ID NCT03846141). Breathing 4% hydrogen for 20 min per day resulted in increased peak running velocity (by up to 4.2%) as compared to air inhalation (P = 0.05). Hydrogen inhalation resulted in a notable drop in serum insulin-like growth factor 1 (IGF-1) by 48.2 ng/mL at follow-up (95% confidence interval [CI]: from -186.7 to 89.3) (P < 0.05), while IGF-1 levels were elevated by 59.3 ng/mL after placebo intervention (95% CI; from -110.7 to 229.5) (P < 0.05). Inhalational hydrogen appears to show ergogenic properties in healthy men and women.

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Hydrogen inhalation improves breath

Inhalation of molecular hydrogen increases breath acetone excretion during submaximal exercise: a randomized, single-blinded, placebo-controlled study

Aerobic exercise is widely accepted as a beneficial option for reducing fat in humans. Recently, it has been suggested that molecular hydrogen (H2) augments mitochondrial oxidative phosphorylation. Therefore, the hypothesis that inhaling H2 could facilitate lipid metabolism during aerobic exercise was investigated in the current study by measuring the breath acetone levels, which could be used as non-invasive indicators of lipid metabolism. This study aimed to investigate the effect of inhaling H2 on breath acetone output during submaximal exercise using a randomized, single-blinded, placebo-controlled, and cross-over experimental design. After taking a 20-minute baseline measurement, breath acetone levels were measured in ten male subjects who performed a 60% peak oxygen uptake-intensity cycling exercise for 20 minutes while inhaling either 1% H2 or a control gas. In another experiment, six male subjects remained in a sitting position for 45 minutes while inhaling either 1% H2 or a control gas. H2 significantly augmented breath acetone and enhanced oxygen uptake during exercise (P < 0.01). However, it did not significantly change oxidative stress or antioxidant activity responses to exercise, nor did it significantly alter the breath acetone or oxygen uptake during prolonged resting states. These results suggest that inhaling H2 gas promotes an exercise-induced increase in hepatic lipid metabolism.

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https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8086628/

 

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red light therapy improves sleep

Red Light and the Sleep Quality and Endurance Performance of Chinese Female Basketball Players

Context:  Good sleep is an important recovery method for prevention and treatment of overtraining in sport practice. Whether sleep is regulated by melatonin after red-light irradiation in athletes is unknown.  Objective: To determine the effect of red light on sleep quality and endurance performance of Chinese female basketball players.  Setting: Athletic training facility of the Chinese People's Liberation Army and research laboratory of the China Institute of Sport Science.

Patients or Other Participants.  Twenty athletes of the Chinese People's Liberation Army team (age = 18.60 ± 3.60 years) took part in the study. Participants were divided into red-light treatment (n = 10) and placebo (n = 10) groups.  Intervention(s)

The red-light treatment participants received 30 minutes of irradiation from a red-light therapy instrument every night for 14 days. The placebo group did not receive light illumination.  Main Outcome Measure(s)  The Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index (PSQI) questionnaire was completed, serum melatonin was assessed, and 12-minute run was performed at preintervention (baseline) and postintervention (14 days).  Results: The 14-day whole-body irradiation with red-light treatment improved the sleep, serum melatonin level, and endurance performance of the elite female basketball players (P < .05). We found a correlation between changes in global Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index and serum melatonin levels (r = −0.695, P = .006).

Conclusions: Our study confirmed the effectiveness of body irradiation with red light in improving the quality of sleep of elite female basketball players and offered a nonpharmacologic and noninvasive therapy to prevent sleep disorders after training.

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https://meridian.allenpress.com/jat/article/47/6/673/111318/Red-Light-and-the-Sleep-Quality-and-Endurance

 

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red light therapy improves performance

Effect of phototherapy (low-level laser therapy and light-emitting diode therapy) on exercise performance and markers of exercise recovery: a systematic review with meta-analysis

Recent studies have explored if phototherapy with low-level laser therapy (LLLT) or narrow-band light-emitting diode therapy (LEDT) can modulate activity-induced skeletal muscle fatigue or subsequently protect against muscle injury. We performed a systematic review with meta-analysis to investigate the effects of phototherapy applied before, during and after exercises. A literature search was performed in Pubmed/Medline database for randomized controlled trials (RCTs) published from 2000 through 2012. Trial quality was assessed with the ten-item PEDro scale. Main outcome measures were selected as: number of repetitions and time until exhaustion for muscle performance, and creatine kinase (CK) activity to evaluate risk for exercise-induced muscle damage. The literature search resulted in 16 RCTs, and three articles were excluded due to poor quality assessment scores. From 13 RCTs with acceptable methodological quality (≥6 of 10 items), 12 RCTs irradiated phototherapy before exercise, and 10 RCTs reported significant improvement for the main outcome measures related to performance. The time until exhaustion increased significantly compared to placebo by 4.12 s (95 % CI 1.21–7.02, p < 0.005) and the number of repetitions increased by 5.47 (95 % CI 2.35–8.59, p < 0.0006) after phototherapy. Heterogeneity in trial design and results precluded meta-analyses for biochemical markers, but a quantitative analysis showed positive results in 13 out of 16 comparisons. The most significant and consistent results were found with red or infrared wavelengths and phototherapy application before exercises, power outputs between 50 and 200 mW and doses of 5 and 6 J per point (spot). We conclude that phototherapy (with lasers and LEDs) improves muscular performance and accelerate recovery mainly when applied before exercise.

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https://link.springer.com/article/10.1007/s10103-013-1465-4

 

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red light therapy improves recovery

Low-level laser (light) therapy (LLLT) on muscle tissue: performance, fatigue and repair benefited by the power of light

The use of low level laser (light) therapy (LLLT) has recently expanded to cover areas of medicine that were not previously thought of as the usual applications such as wound healing and inflammatory orthopedic conditions. One of these novel application areas is LLLT for muscle fatigue and muscle injury. Since it is becom-ing agreed that mitochondria are the principal photoac-ceptors present inside cells, and it is known that muscle cells are exceptionally rich in mitochondria, this suggests that LLLT should be highly beneficial in muscle injuries. The ability of LLLT to stimulate stem cells and progenitor cells means that muscle satellite cells may respond well to LLLT and help muscle repair. Furthermore the ability of LLLT to reduce inflammation and lessen oxidative stress is also beneficial in cases of muscle fatigue and injury. This review covers the literature relating to LLLT and muscles in both preclinical animal experiments and human clini-cal studies. Athletes, people with injured muscles, and patients with Duchenne muscular dystrophy may all benefit.

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https://www.degruyter.com/document/doi/10.1515/plm-2012-0032/html

 

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Infrared light therapy improves recovery

Effects of Far-Infrared Radiation-Lamp Therapy on Recovery From Simulated Soccer Match Running Activities in Elite Soccer Players

The authors investigated whether far-infrared radiation (FIR) lamp therapy would reduce muscle damage and enhance recovery from multiple soccer-match-related running activities. Methods: Twenty-four elite female soccer players (20–24 y) were assigned into a FIR or a sham treatment group (n = 12/group). They performed a daily 90-minute Loughborough Intermittent Shuttle Test (LIST) for 6 consecutive days. Maximal voluntary contraction torque of the knee extensors (KEs) and flexors, muscle soreness, plasma creatine kinase activity, countermovement jump, and several other performance measures (eg, 30-m dash, Yo-Yo Intermittent Recovery Test Level 1) were taken before the first LIST, 1 hour after each LIST, and 24, 48, 72, 96, and 120 hours after the last LIST. All participants received a 30-minute FIR or sham treatment on KEs and knee flexors, respectively, at 2 hour after each LIST and 25, 49, 73, and 97 hours after the last LIST. Results: All measures changed significantly (P < .05) at 1 hour after the first LIST without difference (P > .05) between groups. Maximal voluntary contraction torque (eg, the largest decrease of KE for FIR: 13% [4%], sham: 25% [5%]), countermovement jump height (4% [3%] vs 14% [4%]), and other performance measures (eg, Yo-Yo Intermittent Recovery Test: 11% [5%] vs 26% [5%]) decreased less, and peak muscle soreness (eg, KE: 26 [9] vs 51 [18] mm) and plasma creatine kinase activity (172 [32] vs 1289 [610] IU/L) were smaller for the FIR than for the sham group (P < .05), and they returned to the baseline earlier (P < .05) for the FIR group. Conclusions: These results suggest that the FIR therapy provided potent effects on reducing accumulated muscle damage and enhancing recovery.

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https://journals.humankinetics.com/view/journals/ijspp/17/9/article-p1432.xml

 

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Infrared light therapy speeds recovery

Effects of far-infrared radiation lamp therapy on recovery from muscle damage induced by eccentric exercise

The present study investigated the effects of a far-infrared radiation (FIR) lamp therapy on changes in muscle damage and proprioception markers after maximal eccentric exercise of the elbow flexors (EF: Study 1) and the knee flexors (KF: Study 2) in comparison to a sham treatment condition. In each study, 24 healthy sedentary women were assigned to a FIR or a sham treatment group (n = 12/group). They performed 72 maximal EF eccentric contractions (Study 1) or 100 maximal KF eccentric contractions (Study 2) with their non-dominant limbs. They received a 30-min FIR (wavelength: 8–14 µm) or sham treatment at 1, 25, 49, 73 and 97 h post-exercise to the exercised muscles. Maximum voluntary isometric contraction (MVC) torque, muscle soreness, plasma creatine kinase activity, and proprioception assessed by position sense, joint reaction angle, and force match were measured before, and 0.5, 24, 48, 72, 96 and 120 h post-exercise. The outcome measures showed significant changes (P < 0.05) at 0.5-hour post-exercise (before treatment) similarly (P > 0.05) between the conditions in both studies. However, changes in all measures at 24–120 h post-exercise were smaller (P < 0.05) for the FIR than sham condition in both studies. For example, MVC torque returned to the baseline by 72 h post-exercise for the FIR condition in both studies, but was still 19 ± 6% (Study 1) or 17 ± 12% (Study 2) lower than the baseline at 120 h post-exercise for the sham condition. These results suggested that the FIR lamp therapy was effective for accelerating recovery from muscle damage.

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https://www.tandfonline.com/doi/abs/10.1080/17461391.2023.2185163

 

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Infrared Sauna therapy helps recovery

A post-exercise infrared sauna session improves recovery of neuromuscular performance and muscle soreness after resistance exercise training

The aim of this study was to investigate effects of a single infrared sauna (IRS) session on post-exercise recovery of neuromuscular performance, autonomic nervous system function, subjective sleep quality, and muscle soreness. Male basketball players (n = 16) performed two trials consisting of a complex resistance exercise protocol (maximal strength with plyometrics), followed by either 20 min passive recovery (PAS) or IRS (temperature 43±5°C), in a randomized crossover design, with trials separated by one week. Recovery of neuromuscular performance was assessed using 20 m maximal sprint, maximal countermovement-jump (CMJ), and isometric leg press tests, performed 14 hours after exercise. Heart rate (HR), heart rate variability (HRV), sleep diary, muscle soreness, and indirect muscle damage markers were measured pre and post exercise. The decrease in CMJ performance from pre- to post-exercise was attenuated after IRS compared to PAS (p < 0.01). The IRS session resulted in higher HR and lower root mean square of successive differences between normal heartbeats (RMSSD), and high and low frequency power, compared to PAS (p < 0.002). Post-exercise night-time HR and HRV did not differ following IRS vs. PAS. Muscle soreness was less severe, and perceived recovery was higher after IRS compared to PAS (p < 0.01). Post-exercise IRS attenuated the drop in explosive performance and decreased subjective muscle soreness after resistance training, which may enhance mood, readiness, and physical performance of an athlete.

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https://www.termedia.pl/A-post-exercise-infrared-sauna-session-improves-recovery-of-neuromuscular-performance-and-muscle-soreness-after-resistance-exercise-training,78,47765,0,1.html

 

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Infrared Sauna therapy and muscle recovery

Effects of far-infrared sauna bathing on recovery from strength and endurance training sessions in men

This study investigated effects of far-infrared sauna (FIRS) bathing on recovery from strength training and endurance training sessions, but also possible differences between FIRS and traditional (TRAD) Finnish sauna bathing.  Ten healthy physically active male volunteers had on various days either a 60 min hypertrophic strength training session (STS) or a 34–40 min maximal endurance training session (ETS), which was following by 30 min bathing in special FIRS sauna at temperature of 35–50°C and humidity of 25–35%. After the sauna, subjects sat for 30 min at room temperature (21°C and 25–30% humidity). In comparison, 30 min of TRAD took place at 35–50°C and in 60–70% humidity. Performance tests included maximal isometric bench press and leg press, counter movement jump (CMJ) and maximal oxygen uptake on a treadmill.   After STS, there were decreases in maximal isometric bench press (p < 0.001), maximal isometric leg press (p < 0.001), CMJ (p < 0.001) and pH (p < 0.001), but increases in heart rate (p < 0.001) and lactate concentration (p < 0.001) as expected. During recovery there were no differences in any variables between FIRS and no sauna bathing (NO SAUNA). Maximal ETS increased oxygen uptake (p < 0.001), heart rate (p < 0.001), lactate concentration (p < 0.001) and decreased pH (p < 0.001) as expected. During recovery at 30 min, CMJ was significantly (p < 0.05) higher (0.34 ± 0.09 m) after FIRS bathing than after sitting with NO SAUNA (0.32 ± 0.0 m). After sauna heart rate was higher (p < 0.05) in TRAD (92 ± 13 beats/min) than in FIRS (71 ± 7 beats/min). In conclusion, deep penetration of infrared heat (approximately 3–4 cm into fat tissue and neuromuscular system) with mild temperature (35–50°C), and light humidity (25–35%) during FIRS bathing appears favorable for the neuromuscular system to recover from maximal endurance performance. FIRS bathing is a very light loading for the body and provides a comfortable and relaxing experience.

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https://link.springer.com/article/10.1186/s40064-015-1093-5

 

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hyperbaric oxygen and sports recovery

Effects of Hyperbaric Oxygen Therapy on Mitochondrial Respiration and Physical Performance in Middle-Aged Athletes: A Blinded, Randomized Controlled Trial

Hyperbaric oxygen therapy (HBOT) has been used to increase endurance performance but has yet to be evaluated in placebo-controlled clinical trials. The current study aimed to evaluate the effect of an intermittent HBOT protocol on maximal physical performance and mitochondrial function in middle-aged master athletes.   A double-blind, randomized, placebo-controlled study on 37 healthy middle-aged (40–50) master athletes was performed between 2018 and 2020. The subjects were exposed to 40 repeated sessions of either HBOT [two absolute atmospheres (ATA), breathing 100% oxygen for 1 h] or SHAM (1.02ATA, breathing air for 1 h).  Out of 37 athletes, 16 HBOT and 15 SHAM allocated athletes were included in the final analysis. Following HBOT, there was a significant increase in the maximal oxygen consumption (VO2Max) (p = 0.010, effect size(es) = 0.989) and in the oxygen consumption measured at the anaerobic threshold (VO2AT)(es = 0.837) compared to the SHAM group. Following HBOT, there were significant increases in both maximal oxygen phosphorylation capacity (es = 1.085, p = 0.04), maximal uncoupled capacity (es = 0.956, p = 0.02) and mitochondrial mass marker MTG (p = 0.0002) compared to the SHAM sessions.   HBOT enhances physical performance in healthy middle-age master athletes, including VO2max, power and VO2AT. The mechanisms may be related to significant improvements in mitochondrial respiration and increased mitochondrial mass.

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https://link.springer.com/article/10.1186/s40798-021-00403-w

 

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hyperbaric oxygen improves recovery

Post-Exercise Hyperbaric Oxygenation Improves Recovery for Subsequent Performance

The improvement of athletes’ recovery seems crucial to maintaining a high-performance level. Since hyperbaric oxygenation (HBO) could be a valuable recovery method, this study aimed at determining the effects of post-exercise HBO at modest pressure (97% O2; 1.3 ATA) on physiological response and subsequent cycling performance compared to passive recovery (PR; 21% O2; 1 ATA). Methods: Twelve trained cyclists completed two testing sessions in a random crossover design. Both sessions consisted of one fatiguing exercise immediately followed by either HBO or PR recovery intervention (75 minutes), then a 5-minute maximal cycling effort. Cycling power output, heart rate variability (HRV) during recovery, blood lactate, and the rating of perceived exertion (RPE) were analyzed and compared between conditions. Results: Compared with PR, the cycling power output was significantly higher after HBO (307.5 ± 19.0 W vs 314.5 ± 19.3 W; p = .005; ES = 0.11 [−0.70–0.90]). Moreover, several HRV indices revealed an improvement in HRV recovery in HBO condition. Blood lactate was not significantly different between conditions, neither following the fatiguing exercise nor the maximal effort. HBO decreased RPE after maximal cycling effort and improved the perceived recovery the day after testing sessions (p < .001). Conclusion: This study suggests that HBO is an efficient strategy to improve cardiac parasympathetic reactivation and is beneficial for subsequent performance.

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https://www.tandfonline.com/doi/abs/10.1080/02701367.2021.2002797

 

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pulsed electromagnetic field improves recovery

Effects of Acute Low-Frequency Pulsed Electromagnetic Field Therapy on Aerobic Performance during a Preseason Training Camp: A Pilot Study

Bio-electromagnetic-energy-regulation (BEMER) therapy is a technology using a low-frequency pulsed electromagnetic field (PEMF) in a biorhythmic format. BEMER has been shown to optimize recovery and decrease fatigue by increasing blood flow in microvessels. Our aim was to determine its effects during preseason training in endurance athletes. A total of 14 male cross-country runners (19.07 ± 0.92 y.o.) were placed in either the intervention (PEMF; n = 8) or control (CON; n = 6) group using a covariate-based, constrained randomization. Participants completed six running sessions at altitudes ranging from 881.83 (±135.98 m) to 1027.0 (±223.44 m) above sea level. PEMF group used BEMER therapy before and after each training session, totaling 12 times. There were no significant changes in absolute or relative VO2Peak, ventilation or maximum respiration rate for either the PEMF or CON group (p > 0.05). There was a significant effect of time for absolute and relative ventilatory threshold (VT), and maximum heart rate, heart rate at VT and respiration rate at VT. This study was the first of its kind to study PEMF technology in combination with elevated preseason training. Results indicate some evidence for the use of PEMF therapy during short-term training camps to improve VT.

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https://www.mdpi.com/1660-4601/18/14/7691

 

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pemf improves muscle recovery

Effects of pulsed electromagnetic field therapy on delayed-onset muscle soreness in biceps brachii

to compare the effects of pulsed electromagnetic field (PEMF) therapy and sham treatment on DOMS-related variables in elbow flexors at 24, 48 and 72 h after delayed onset muscle soreness (DOMS) induction exercise. Rrandomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled study. Participants In total, 30 healthy male college students. Main outcome measures

Muscle soreness, peak torque, median frequency (MDF) and electromechanical delay (EMD) during isometric contraction at 24, 48 and 72 h after DOMS induction exercise. Results  Overall, the application of the PEMF was found to be effective in reducing the physiological deficits associated with DOMS, including improved recovery of perceived muscle soreness, MDF, and EMD during isometric contraction. Our results did not show that PEMF treatment was mechanically more effective for isometric peak torque generation compared to the sham group. Conclusion this study indicates that PEMF may be useful as a modality to reduce DOMS symptoms. However, further well-designed experiments are required to determine optimal treatment dosage and duration, and to investigate the physiological and clinical mechanisms of PEMF on DOMS.

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https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/abs/pii/S1466853X14000108

 

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pemf improves muscle activation

Effect of Pulsed Electromagnetic Fields (PEMFs) on Muscular Activation during Cycling: A Single-Blind Controlled Pilot Study

PEMF stimulation results in a higher O2 muscle supply during exercise through increased O2 release and uptake. Given the importance of oxygen uptake in sport activity, especially in aerobic disciplines such as cycling, we sought to investigate the influence of PEMF on muscle activity when subjects cycled at an intensity between low and severe. Methods: Twenty semi-professional cyclists performed a constant-load exercise with randomized active (ON) or inactive (OFF) PEMF stimulation. Each subject started the recording session with 1 min of cycling without load (warm-up), followed by an instantaneous increase in power, as the individualized workload (constant-load physical effort). PEMF loops were applied on the vastus medialis and biceps femoris of the right leg. We recorded the electromyographic activity from each muscle and measured blood lactate prior the exercise and during the constant-load physical effort. Results: PEMF stimulation caused a significant increase in muscle activity in the warm-up condition when subjects cycled without load (p < 0.001). The blood lactate concentration was higher during PEMF stimulation (p < 0.001), a possible consequence of PEMF’s influence on glycolytic metabolism. Conclusion: PEMF stimulation augmented the activity and the metabolism of muscular fibers during the execution of physical exercise. PEMF stimulation could be used to raise the amplitude of muscular responses to physical activity, especially during low-intensity exercise.

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https://www.mdpi.com/2227-9032/11/6/922

 

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whole body vibration improves muscles

Whole-Body Vibration Training Effects on the Physical Performance of Basketball Players

The aim of this study was to investigate the influence of 4 weeks of whole-body vibration training added to the conventional training of basketball players. Eighteen competitive basketball players (13 ♂, 5 ♀, 18-24 years old) were randomly assigned to a whole-body vibration group (WBVG, n = 10; 7 ♂ and 3 ♀) or a control group (CG, n = 8; 6 ♂ and 2 ♀). During the 4-week period, all subjects maintained their conventional basketball training program. The members of WBVG were additionally trained 3 times a week for 20 minutes on a vibration platform (10 unloaded static lower limb exercises, 40-Hz, 4-mm, Silverplate®). Testing was performed before and after the 4-week period and comprised strength assessment, vertical jump performance, and a 10-m sprint test. The maximal voluntary isometric strength of the knee extensors significantly increased (p < 0.001) after vibration training, as did squat jump (SJ) height (p < 0.05), whereas performance of the countermovement jump, drop jump, 30-second rebound jump, and 10-m sprint remained unchanged. The results of the present study indicated that a 4-week whole-body vibration training program added to the conventional training of basketball players during the preseason is an effective short-term stimulus to enhance knee extensor strength and slightly SJ performance.

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https://journals.lww.com/nsca-jscr/Fulltext/2010/04000/Strength_Increase_after_Whole_Body_Vibration.00016.aspx

 

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whole body vibration improves strength

Effect of Whole-Body-Vibration Training on Trunk-Muscle Strength and Physical Performance in Healthy Adults: Preliminary Results of a Randomized Controlled Trial

Whole-body-vibration (WBV) stimulus equipment has been used as a new training method for health promotion. Its use in the clinic has expanded to the field of sports and rehabilitation for disabled patients. WBV training is rapidly gaining popularity in health and fitness centers as an alternative method for improving muscle performance. Acute positive effects of WBV have been shown on lower-extremity muscle power and vertical-jump ability; however, there have not been any studies focusing on the long-term effects of WBV for trunk muscle and dynamic balance.  Objective:  To investigate the effects of an 8-wk program of WBV in combination with trunk-muscle training on muscle performance in healthy, untrained adults.  Design:  Laboratory-based, repeated-measures study. Setting:  University laboratory. Participants:  20 healthy university men. Intervention:

Participants were randomly assigned to a WBV or non-WBV group. The WBV group performed a trunk-muscle-training program in combination with WBV; the non-WBV group performed the same muscle-training program without WBV for 8 wk. Main Outcome Measures:  In the pre- and posttraining period, the participants were evaluated using the Functional Movement Screen (FMS), Y Balance Test (Y-test) (anterior, posteromedial, and posterolateral reach), trunk-muscle isometric strength (flexor, extensor, and flexor:extensor ratio), squat jump, and countermovement jump. Results:  The WBV group had greater improvement than the non-WBV group in both trunk-flexor muscle strength (P = .02) and the Y-test (anterior reach) (P = .004) between pre- and posttraining. Conclusion:  Adding WBV to a trunk-muscle-strengthening program may improve trunk-flexor isometric strength and anterior reach during the Y-test more than training without WBV. The WBV protocol used in this study had no significant impact on FMS scores, squat jumping, countermovement jumping, trunk-extensor isometric strength, or trunk flexor:extensor ratio.

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https://journals.humankinetics.com/view/journals/jsr/25/4/article-p357.xml

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vibroacoustic therapy improves recovery

Effect of vibroacoustic stimulation on athletes recovering from exercise

In sports requiring multiple short bouts of high-intensity exertion, recovery while off the field is an important part of being an effective competitive athlete. This study investigated the potential of vibroacoustic stimulation to aid recovery from athletic stress.  University of Pittsburgh club and varsity athletes (n = 22) pedaled on a stationary bike strenuously, followed by a period of recovery accompanied by vibration using a wearable transducer. Subjective and physiological (skin conductance responses and cardiac measures) were used to determine the extent of recovery with frontal electroencephalographic (alpha/theta) measures indexing brain reactivity. Vibrations rated as the most calming by each participant were associated with increased high-frequency heart-rate variability, representing parasympathetic tone, particularly in athletes most affected by pedaling. Yet, EEG markers, while related to subjective recovery, were not associated with physiological change. This work provides support for the idea that vibration, which is subjectively rated as calming, could affect physiological recovery from physical stressors, at least for those individuals whose physiology is affected by exertion. This is likely through direct effects on physiology rather than “top down” effects on the brain.

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https://link.springer.com/article/10.1007/s00421-022-05026-x

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vibroacoustic therapy reduces stress

Effect of low frequency sound vibration on acute stress response in university students—Pilot randomized controlled trial

Low frequency sound (LFS, combined with music listening) is applied by practitioners in vibroacoustic therapy who report a positive effect of this intervention on acute stress response. However, there is a lack of research on this topic and studies with mainly objective measurements are scarce.  Materials and methods: In this pilot double-blinded Randomized Controlled Trial we used a multimodal approach to measurement of acute stress response in 54 international university students attending a university summer school in Olomouc, the Czech Republic who were individually randomized into a group receiving LFS vibration and a control group. In both groups, the acute stress response was measured by heart rate variability (HRV), visual analogue scales (VAS) for stress and muscle relaxation.  Results: Differences were found in pre-test post-test measures, however, between groups differences occurred only for HRV, with statistically significant improvement in the experimental group (parameter LF/HF and pNN50).  Conclusion: Vibroacoustic therapy has the potential to contribute to the stress management of university students. Further research is needed to explore the effect of LFS on stress response, especially when applied without additional music listening.

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https://www.frontiersin.org/articles/10.3389/fpsyg.2022.980756/full

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compression massage improves recovery

Acute Effects of Peristaltic Pneumatic Compression on Repeated Anaerobic Exercise Performance and Blood Lactate Clearance

Low frequency sound (LFS, combined with music listening) is applied by practitioners in vibroacoustic therapy who report a positive effect of this intervention on acute stress response. However, there is a lack of research on this topic and studies with mainly objective measurements are scarce.  Materials and methods: In this pilot double-blinded Randomized Controlled Trial we used a multimodal approach to measurement of acute stress response in 54 international university students attending a university summer school in Olomouc, the Czech Republic who were individually randomized into a group receiving LFS vibration and a control group. In both groups, the acute stress response was measured by heart rate variability (HRV), visual analogue scales (VAS) for stress and muscle relaxation.  Results: Differences were found in pre-test post-test measures, however, between groups differences occurred only for HRV, with statistically significant improvement in the experimental group (parameter LF/HF and pNN50).  Conclusion: Vibroacoustic therapy has the potential to contribute to the stress management of university students. Further research is needed to explore the effect of LFS on stress response, especially when applied without additional music listening.

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https://www.frontiersin.org/articles/10.3389/fpsyg.2022.980756/full

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Electrcial muscle stim improves recovery

Comparison of Swim Recovery and Muscle Stimulation on Lactate Removal After Sprint Swimming

Comparison of swim recovery and muscle stimulation on lactate removal after sprint swimming. J Strength Cond Res 23(9): 2560-2567, 2009-Competitive swimming requires multiple bouts of high-intensity exercise, leading to elevated blood lactate. Active exercise recovery has been shown to lower lactate faster than passive resting recovery but may not always be practical. An alternative treatment, electrical muscle stimulation, may have benefits similar to active recovery in lowering blood lactate but to date is unstudied. Therefore, this study compared submaximal swimming and electrical muscle stimulation in reducing blood lactate after sprint swimming. Thirty competitive swimmers (19 men and 11 women) participated in the study. Each subject completed 3 testing sessions consisting of a warm-up swim, a 200-yard maximal frontcrawl sprint, and 1 of 3 20-minute recovery treatments administered in random order. The recovery treatments consisted of a passive resting recovery, a submaximal swimming recovery, or electrical muscle stimulation. Blood lactate was tested at baseline, after the 200-yard sprint, and after 10 and 20 minutes of recovery. A significant interaction (p < 0.05) between recovery treatment and recovery time was observed. Blood lactate levels for the swimming recovery were significantly lower at 10 minutes (3.50 ± 1.57 mmol·L−1) and 20 minutes (1.60 ± 0.57 mmol·L−1) of recovery than either of the other 2 treatments. Electrical muscle stimulation led to a lower mean blood lactate (3.12 ± 1.41 mmol·L−1) after 20 minutes of recovery compared with passive rest (4.11 ± 1.35 mmol·L−1). Submaximal swimming proved to be most effective at lowering blood lactate, but electrical muscle stimulation also reduced blood lactate 20 minutes postexercise significantly better than resting passive recovery. Electrical muscle stimulation shows promise as an alternate recovery treatment for the purpose of lowering blood lactate.

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https://journals.lww.com/nsca-jscr/Fulltext/2009/12000/Comparison_of_Swim_Recovery_and_Muscle_Stimulation.19.aspx

 

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EMS muscle stimulation improves performance

Effect of Patterned Electrical Neuromuscular Stimulation on Vertical Jump in Collegiate Athletes

Patterned electrical neuromuscular stimulation (PENS) uses the electrical stimulation of sensory and motor nerves to achieve a skeletal muscle contraction using an electromyogram-derived functional pattern. PENS is used extensively for neuromuscular reeducation and treatment of muscle disuse atrophy. Purpose:  To explore the effectiveness of PENS as applied to the quadriceps muscles on the vertical jump of an athletic population.  Study Design:  Experimental with control and repeated measures over time.  Methods:Healthy college athletes (54 women, 75 men) were divided into 3 groups (control, n = 30; jump, n = 33; and jump with PENS, n = 63). There was no difference among groups’ height and weight. Athletes performed a baseline standing vertical jump using a vertical jump system. The control group continued its normal daily activities with no jumping tasks included. The jump groups performed 3 sets of 12 repetitions with a 2-minute rest between sets at a frequency of 3 times per week. The PENS group did the jumping with the coordination of an electrical stimulation system. Vertical jump was retested after 6 weeks of intervention and 2 weeks after cessation. Results:  A 3-way repeated measures analysis of variance for time (control, jump alone, jump with PENS) revealed a significant difference (P < 0.05) for time and an interaction between time and treatment, as well as a significant difference for the PENS group from baseline to posttest and for the jump group from posttest to follow-up jump. There was no significant difference between groups for the baseline vertical jump. Conclusions:

This study demonstrated that 6 weeks of vertical jump training coordinated with PENS resulted in a greater increase than jumping only or control. This pattern of stimulation with PENS in combination with jump training may positively affect jumping.

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https://journals.sagepub.com/doi/abs/10.1177/1941738110397871?journalCode=spha

 

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grounding improves performance recovery

Effectiveness of Grounded Sleeping on Recovery After Intensive Eccentric Muscle Loading

We set out to investigate the effectiveness of grounded sleeping on the time course of recovery with respect to muscle soreness and athletic performance after intensive eccentric muscle loading.  Methods: Twenty-two healthy participants were recruited for this study and randomly assigned to an experimental group (GRD, grounded sleeping, n = 12) or control group (UGD, sham-grounded sleeping, n = 10) to evaluate the effects of 10 days recovery with GRD vs. UGD following a single intensive downhill treadmill intervention in a triple-blinded (participant, tester, and data analyst) manner. To operationalize recovery a test battery was performed at baseline and on days 1, 2, 3, 5, 7, and 10 post-intervention: (1) perception of muscle soreness (VAS), (2) creatine kinase blood levels (CK), (3) maximum voluntary isometric contraction (MVIC) for both legs, (4) counter movement jump (CMJ) and drop jump (DJ) performance. Furthermore, in four participants blood was sampled for detailed analysis of complete blood counts and serum-derived inflammation markers.  Results: The downhill treadmill running intervention led to distinct changes in all measured parameters related to fatigue. These changes were detectable already 5-min post intervention and were not fully recovered 10 days post intervention. GRD led to less pronounced decrease in performance (CMJ, MVIC) and less increase with respect to CK compared with UGD (all P < 0.05). Detailed blood samples demonstrated that grounded sleeping modulates the recovery process by (a) keeping a constant hemoconcentration, as represented by the number of erythrocytes, and the hemoglobin/hematocrit values; and (b) by the reduction of muscle damage-associated inflammation markers such as, IP-10, MIP-1α, and sP-Selectin.  Conclusion: The downhill running protocol is a feasible methodology to produce long term muscle soreness and muscular fatigue. GRD was shown to result in faster recovery and/or less pronounced markers of muscle damage and inflammation. GRD might be seen as a simple methodology to enhance acute and long-term recovery after intensive eccentric exercises.

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https://www.frontiersin.org/articles/10.3389/fphys.2019.00035/full?fbclid=IwAR0655_dbckT-2XojMaAFxQblDcGwGVPGWzTB41MTksrCZgGsJTarCzjXxA&mc_cid=80dc0c3577&mc_eid=8f8616ed2c

 

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